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The Calorie Control Council - Glycemic Supp reprint (Page 8)

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The Calorie Control Council - Glycemic Supp reprint
used in a truthful and not misleading
manner. The document can be found at:
www.fsis.usda.gov/oppde/larc/
policies/carblabel.htm
.
Several petitions relating to carbo-
hydrate labeling are pending before
FDA. In April 2005, FDA announced it
would be conducting an experimental
study of carbohydrate content claims
on food labels. The purpose of the
study is to help enhance FDA's under-
standing of consumer response to car-
bohydrate content claims on food labels
and to assist the agency in responding
to the pending petitions on carbohy-
drate labeling (Federal Register, 2005;
70(67):18,032-18,034). FDA has not
yet proposed any labeling related to the
carbohydrate content of food.
GI acceptance elsewhere
Australia is leading the way with a
GI logo for use on products accredited
by the University of Sydney (see
www.glycemicindex.com). In order for
accreditation, a product must comply
with nutrient profiles specified by the
University. South Africa has also wide-
ly adopted GI labeling, and the GI
Foundation has developed an interesting
logo program encompassing both GI
and fat content (see www.gifounda
tion.com
). In Japan, there is growing
awareness among healthcare profes-
sionals and food manufacturers, and
glucose attenuating properties of fiber-
based products are being promoted to
consumers.
The Role of specialty carbohydrates
Sugar alcohols (polyols) such as lac-
titol, xylitol, isomalt, erythritol and
maltitol have a low glycemic effect, as
Fruits that are high in fructose rather
than glucose have a low to moderate
glycemic index and might prove useful in
formulating products that fit into low-
glycemic diets.
Terminology and methodology
There are a number of definitions relevant to the glycemic
properties of foods. These include:
Glycemic index (GI):
The incremental area under the blood glucose
response curve (AUC) of a 50 gram (or 25 gram) available carbohydrate
portion of a test food expressed as a percent of the response to the same
amount of carbohydrate from a standard food (normally glucose) taken by
the same subject.
Glycemic load (GL):
GI multiplied by the carbohydrate content of a
typical serving of the food.
Available carbohydrate:
Carbohydrate absorbed into the blood from the
small intestine and metabolized.
Carbohydrate by difference:
In the United States, carbohydrate is
calculated as the total weight of food less protein, fat, moisture and ash. In
Europe, fiber is considered separate from carbohydrates.
Glycemic glucose equivalents:
The weight of glucose in grams that
would be equivalent to a given amount of food in its glycemic effect.
Glycemic effect, glycemic response, glycemic impact, glycemic
challenge:
These terms are not formally defined, but generally refer to the
changes that happen to blood glucose after consumption of a
carbohydrate-containing food.

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