c h e m i s t r y
to partially reverse clinical signs
of photo-damaged facial skin caused by
exposure to UV light. Kinetin reduces wrinkles,
hyperpigmentation and roughness with less
irritation than Retinoic Acid (Retin-A).
Vitamins, which include the antioxidants
Vitamin A, C and E are commonly used to
deliver a variety of benefits to the skin. These
include Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), which helps
heal tissue; Vitamin B5 or Pantothenic Acid
(Panthenol) which helps strengthen the skin
and promote healing of cuts and flexibility of
scar tissue and Vitamin K, composed of several
substances including Phylloquinone, which
contributes to the blood's ability to clot, as
well as many functions of the skin. The body
can produce Vitamin D (Calciferol) when skin
is exposed to sunlight.
anti-aging products that use these ingredients
normally contain 3% to 12% of one or more
of these acids.
Enzymes are ingredients that are designed to
dissolve keratin proteins on the surface of the
skin, resulting in exfoliation and softer,
smoother skin. Enzyme ingredients include
Papain (papaya enzyme), and Bromelain, a
pineapple enzyme that dissolves the keratin
proteins that compose dead skin cell buildup.
They are incorporated into professional peels
and products to exfoliate and smooth the skin.
Kinetin is an essential growth factor that
prevents premature aging and is believed
Among hydroxy acids there are three categories:
alpha, beta and poly. The difference between
them depends on the location of the carboxyl
group in the molecule.
1. When the carboxyl group is located on the
first carbon atom of the organic acid chain,
the ingredient is categorized as an alpha
hydroxy acid. Two examples of alpha hydroxy
acids are Glycolic and Lactic Acids, which
are the two most widely used hydroxy acids.
2. If the carboxyl group is located on the second
carbon atom of the chain, the ingredient is
categorized as a beta hydroxy acid. Salicylic
Acid is an example of a beta hydroxy acid.
3. Poly hydroxy acids are molecules that contain
several carboxyl groups in the same chain.
Malic Acid is an example of a poly hydroxy
acid, with two carboxyl groups, one each
on the alpha and beta positions.