ing, the mixture of vinegar and oil separates and needs shaking before being used. Many lotions used
in the cosmetology industry are suspensions. Calamine lotion is another example.
Emulsions are formed when two or more nonmixable substances
(like oil and water) are united with the help of a binder or
gum-like substance. The gum-like substance might be a soap.
General classifications of emulsions are oil-in-water (perm
solutions) and water-in-oil (cold creams). Most emulsions used
in the cosmetology industry are classified as oil-in-water.
Ointments are mixtures of organic substances and a medicinal agent, usually found in a semi-solid
form. Water is generally not present in this mixture. Ointment-type preparations come in the form
of sticks (like lipstick), pastes (like some eye shadows or blush) and mucilages (thick liquids, such
as styling lotions).
Soaps are mixtures of fats and oils converted to fatty acids by heat and then purified. Soaps used in
the cosmetology industry generally fall into the categories of deodorant soaps, beauty soaps, med-
icated soaps and antibacterial soaps.
Powders are equal mixtures of inorganic and organic substances that do not dissolve in water and
that have been sifted and mixed until free of coarse gritty particles. Perfume and shades of color are
usually added for purposes of enhancement.
You are now ready to take a look at the chemistry of products and procedures for services in the
salon. The natural place to start is with the service most often performed...shampooing.
poo primarily to clean the hair and scalp and to remove all foreign matter, including dirt,
sebum (natural scalp oil), cosmetics, hair spray and skin debris without adversely affecting
either the scalp or hair.
Shampooing the hair is an important function for the stylist as it is often
the first impression the client has of the salon and of the stylist. Shampooing, as part of a salon serv-
ice, can be a highly therapeutic experience when done in a caring, organized and confident manner.
the shampoo should be a soothing, relaxing experience, as it sets the climate for
all future services.
Hair should be shampooed as often as necessary depending on how quickly the scalp and hair
become soiled. Frequency varies from individual to individual.
Improper or irregular cleansing
allows a breeding place for disease-causing bacteria
and can lead to scalp disorders and even
Immiscible = liquids not
able to be mixed
Miscible = liquids able
to be mixed together