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8. Summary

The objectives of sampling and monitoring requirements are to demonstrate regulation
compliance, to verify effluent limitations, and to aid in implementation and correction of
operational problems. With increasing awareness of the environmental concerns due to
hydrocarbons in the cooling water systems, regardless of the frequency, sampling and monitoring
accuracy will need to be enhanced.

The regulatory permits require a record keeping and reporting program to document compliance.
Plant Operators require an easy monitoring and reporting program with decreased maintenance.
The Design Engineers will have to search for state-of- the art instruments and to provide accurate
on-line monitoring and sampling systems to notify operators when hydrocarbons are present in
the cooling tower so that the hydrocarbons in the cooling water can be minimized. Manual
sampling seems simple and inexpensive, but requires extensive labor and around the clock
preparation and recording to produce reasonably accurate and representative samples. While on-
line monitoring systems seem expensive at first, in the long run they could cost less. They
generally eliminate guesswork, reduce safety hazards, lower labor costs, and produce accurate

The history of cooling tower monitoring and environmental compliance has progressed from
minimal monitoring and environmental concern to an atmosphere of increased concern. This has
resulted in a positive benefit, reduced cooling tower impact to our environment.


Frank N. Kemmer, The Nalco Water Handbook, 2
Edition, McGraw-Hill Co, 1988

Betz Handbook of Industrial Water Conditioning, 9
Edition, 1991

Drew Principles of Industrial Water Treatment, 11
Edition, 1994, Drew Industrial

Perry, R.H., Perry's Chemical Engineering Handbook, 6
Edition, McGraw-Hill Co,

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