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2-Butyl crotonate
McGill, et al.
Shorter time resolution than
Titanium Dioxide
(solid phase)
Clegg, et al.
Interface easily accomplished,
many sample types can be
analyzed, minimal intrusion to
the process, spectrometer is
protected, hazardous samples
can be readily sampled.
Para-, ortho- and
Gresham, et al.
Similar performance
Shaw, et al.
Couple with
1999 Ethyl
Svensson, et al.
Couple with
Fast and accurate
1998 chlorosilane
(liquid phase)
Lipp and Gross
Superior time resolution

From the reported cases shown in Table 2, it is very clear that Raman Spectroscopy has a very high
potential in on-line process monitoring. Even though it has higher investment cost compared to other
techniques, for example the cost in parts for the NIR instrument is approximately half that of the Raman
instrument (Gresham, et al: 1999), it will be the choice of instrument due to the advantages stated in
Table 2.

Clegg, I.M., Everall, N.J., King, B., Melvin, H, and Norton, C. 2001. On-line Analysis Using Raman Spectroscopy
for Process Control during the Manufacturing of Titanium Dioxide. Applied Spectroscopic. [online], 55 (9),
1138-1150. Available from: [Accessed 30 Jan 2005]
Gresham, C.A, Gilmore, D.A. and Denton, M.B. 1999. Direct Comparison of Near-infrared Absorbance
Spectroscopy with Raman Scattering Spectroscopy for the Quantitative Analysis of Xylene Isomer Mixtures.
Applied Spectroscopic. [online], 53 (10), 1177-1182. Available from: [Accessed 30 Jan 2005]
Lipp, E.D. and Gross, R.L. 1998. On-line Monitoring of Chlorosilane Streams by Raman Spectroscopy. Applied
Spectroscopic. [online], 52 (1), 42-46. Available from:
[Accessed 30 Jan 2005]
McGill, C.A., Nordon, A. and Littlejohn, D. 2002. Comparison of in-line NIR, Raman and UV-visible
spectrometries, and at-line NMR spectrometry for the monitoring of an esterification reaction. Analyst.
[online], 127, 287-292. Available from: [Accessed 30 Jan 2005]
Schmidt, K.J., Zhang, S.L., Michaelian, K.H., Webb, M.A. and Loppnow, G.R. 1999. Quantitation of Sulfur
Oxyanions in Industrial Metal Refining Solutions with Dispersive and Fourier Transform Raman Spectroscopy.
Applied Spectroscopic. [online], 53 (10), 1206-1211. Available from: [Accessed 30 Jan 2005]
Shaw, A.D., Kaderbhai, N., Jones, A., Woodward, A.M., Goodacre, R., Rowland, J.J. and Kell, D.B. 1999.
Noninvasive, On-line Monitoring of the Biotransformation by Yeast of Glucose to Ethanol Using Dispersive
Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometrics. Applied Spectroscopic. [online], 53 (11), 1419-1428. Available from: [Accessed 30 Jan 2005]
Svensson, O., Josefson, M. and Langkilde, F.W. 1999. Reaction Monitoring using Raman Spectroscopy and
Chemometrics. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems. [online], 49, 49-66. Available from: [Accessed 30 Jan 2005]
Weyers, L.G., Yee, G and Wade, J. 2004. Installation of a Multiplexed Raman System in a Chemical Process.
Applied Spectroscopic. [online], 58 (12), 1500-1505. Available from: [Accessed 22 Jan 2005]

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