Table 3. Estimated world-wide sales (1991) of recombined proteins which are used as
pharmaceuticals (Source: Decision Resource Inc)
Estimated sales (million USD)
Human growth hormone
Tissue plasminogen activator
Granulocyte colony stimulating factor
In addition, enzyme will be useful in the synthesis of complex molecules needed in immunology,
endocrinology, intermediate metabolism, molecule genetic, and plant or insect biology. Water-soluble
synthetic targets such as carbohydrates and nucleic acids are now commonly manipulated with enzymes.
Enzymology complements both classical synthetic chemistry and biological synthetic techniques.
Enzymes are also useful in isotopic labeling, analysis and waste treatment.
Fransson, A.L., Borén, L., Pàmies, O and Bäckvall, J. 2005. "Kinetic Resolution and Chemoenzymatic
Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of Functionalized
-Hydroxy Amides". J. Org. Chem. Vol. 70, pp.
Jiang, M.X.W., Warshakoon, N.C. and Miller, M.J. 2005. "Chemoenzymatic Asymmetric Total Synthesis
of Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors: Preparations of a Polycyclic Pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine from an
Acylnitroso Diels-Alder Cycloadduct-Derived Aminocyclopentenol". J. Org. Chem. Vol. 70, pp.
Keller, V. 2001. Dynamic Kinetic Resolution:Practical Applications in Synthesis [on-line]. Available
from: http://www.chem.wisc.edu/areas/organic/studsemin/keller/keller-abs.pdf [Accessed 5 April
Roberts, S.M., Turner, N.J., Willetts, A. and Turner, M.K. 1995. Introduction to Biocatalysis Using
Enzymes and Micro-organisms. US: Cambridge University Press.
Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 5
ed. 1987. Germany: VCH
Yoshimoto, M., Wang, S.Q., Fukunaga, K., Fournier, D., Walde, P., Kuboi, R. and Nakao, K. 2005.
"Novel Immobilized Liposomal Glucose Oxidase System Using the Channel Protein OmpF and
Catalase". Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 231-238.