Veterinary Anesthesia and Monitoring Equipment
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N7 W22025 Johnson Road, Suite A
Waukesha, WI 53186 USA
Phone: 262-513-8500 Fax: 262-513-9069
Patients that benefit:
Those patients with pre-existing respiratory disease and those undergoing procedures that
may change respiratory function. This includes procedures or patients with: thoracotomy,
diaphragmatic hernia, possible pneumothorax, pneumonia, asthma/ heaves, critically ill
sepsis, shock, trauma.
Treatment of hypercarbia:
Elevated levels of CO
in end tidal gas or arterial blood always indicates an imbalance
between the carbon dioxide produced and its respiratory excretion. You should check your
equipment. Some equipment problems that can cause increased PaCO
include channeling or
exhaustion of soda lime, as well as missing or stuck one way valves in the breathing system.
An increased metabolic rate could cause hypercarbia. Also depression of ventilation and
decreased respiratory minute volume.
In an anesthetized patient decrease the anesthetic depth. In a patient with severe
elevations of P
(usually > 60 mm Hg) the appropriate treatment is mechanical
Rebreathing implies that some or all of the gas that was exhaled with the last breath is
inhaled again, this can contribute to hypercarbia. Carbon dioxide is the marker for
Treatment of hypocarbia:
Hyperventilation is defined by hypocarbia. This can be caused by overzealous manual
ventilation. Other causes include hypoxia, pain, too light. If you are ventilating for the
patient, slow down. If not, consider whether they require analgesics, an increase in
anesthetic depth, or treatment of hypoxia.